A wind park as largest citizen initiative in The Netherlands

Wind park Krammer

Krammer sluices Zeeland

Krammer sluices Zeeland

Krammer sluices Zeeland

Krammer sluices Zeeland

the essence

That’s a first!

The idea for a wind park near the Krammersluizen (Krammer locks) had been around since 2000. After all, it is a logical location: a man-made landscape of stone dams in the middle of sizeable delta waters among Zeeland’s islands. And to boot: here, the wind blows freely and forcefully.

Still, it took almost ten years before the idea took off. And another ten years before the wind park was officially opened. There was no grid connection, and only with the advent of larger wind turbines its realisation became financially viable. Besides that, Rijkswaterstaat was not so keen on having wind turbines on this important stretch of primary dike. The answer had been ‘no’ for years. Only after a successful pilot project did Rijkswaterstaat finally agree to look for ways to make construction of a wind park possible. Next, BoschSlabbers carried out design-based research into the possible set-ups and their spatial impact, resulting in a preferred alternative for the wind park.


A set-up with a distinctive look, matching the size and scale of the surrounding landscape. A set-up taking existing ecological values and the conservation aims of its Natura2000 status into consideration. Such was the commission handed to us.

In design-based research, a spatially optimal alternative was sought. In a model study, several options for the positioning of wind turbines was visualised. Visualisation of the models in 3D-simulations and Photoshop enabled their assessment in terms of spatial impact and experiential value. This research included the experience of both local residents, visitors and passers-by such as motorists.

the approach

Thick cloud, double cloud, long line, triple line

A first survey of the area led to three main variants: Islands, Autonomy and Artwork. Within these variants, a total of 15 subvariants were tested. After the choice fell on the Artwork variant, this was further developed, in a modelling study which included the assessment of an additional set of subvariants: thick cloud, double cloud, long line and triple line. Apart from certain preconditions and ecological values, these subvariants were judged on the following criteria:

  • Spatial integration in the landscape
  • Preservation of the panorama
  • Added value of the set-up
  • Recognisable, distinct look at eye-level
  • Compact recognisability

The final set-up of preference, realised in 2019, has a compact look, recognisable from every angle. It preserves long sightlines and leaves ecologically valuable areas unscathed as much as possible. The link with the famous Deltawerken (especially the Krammersluizen) is enhanced.

Interesting detail

34 wind turbines, 3500 initiators

The 3500 members of local energy cooperatives Zeeuwind and Deltawind joined forces for the development. This makes Wind park Krammer the biggest citizen initiative of the Netherlands. Now, its 34 turbines tower 180 meters above the Zeeland horizon. With a joint capacity of 102 Megawatt, more than 100.000 households on and around the Krammersluizen are provided with energy. By attracting contractors and suppliers from within the region, the local economy profits from its construction. This truly makes Krammer a wind park of and for the region.

project data

Title: Wind park Krammer

Location: Krammer sluices, Zeeland, NL

Size: 1250 ha, 102 MW

Client: Zeeuwind en Deltawind

Cooperation: RBOI, Greentrust

Duration: Design 2009-2012, realisation 2017-2019

Type: design research, formation plan

Image credits: BoschSlabbers, Beeldbank Windpark Krammer (Herman Maas, Menno Mulder, SkyPictures, Wim van Vossen, Rijksdienst Ondernemend Nederland)

Project code: ZL 09-23